The 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games: Its Role in Infrastructure, Telecommunication, and Politics

For Russia the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games will play a huge role in its infrastructure, telecommunication, and politics. In a report released by the Federal Target Programme (FTP), as of June 2009 the organizers of the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games have been designating its Olympic facilities in advance. According to the FTP, the Russian government is expected to allot $580 million for the construction of facilities for the Winter Olympic Games. The budget will be also used for the following:

Construction of digital broadcasting infrastructures, including radio and TV stations assigned to cover the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games.
Assembly of “info-communication centers” for HDTV satellite coverage of the games worldwide.
Modernization of the TETRA local mobile radio for the 100 target user groups who will cover the events via radio.
The extension of fiber-optic cables along the Anapa-Dzhubga-Sochi highway and other Krasnodar towns. The cables will enable live news feeds and video conferences from the games.The Sochi City Light Metro is expected to take its construction between the Krasnaya Polyana and Adler roads. The Krasnaya Polyana is where the Olympic Park will be located. The Adler railroad meanwhile will be constructed to enable its regional telecommunications services during the Winter Olympic season. In December 2009, The Russian Railways ordered the designation of 38 Seimens Mobility trains in Sochi. The trains will serve as the official transportation of the athletes and other delegates. A 3.5 km runway extension is set to be constructed along the Sochi Airport. The runway will be situated along the Mzymta River fronting Sochi City’s backup airports.As of May 2009, Russian Railways already started the construction of the “Tunnel Complex No.1″ within the Adler and Alpica railroads. The railway tunnel is expected to be finished in 2013. According to Vladimir Yakunin, head of Russian Railways, the Tunnel Complex No. 1 is where the mobility trains provided by Seimens will take its passage. Yakunin also stated that the construction of the tunnel is expected to cost 200 billion Rubbles (Russia’s official currency).In May 2010, the National Anti-Criminal and Anti-Terrorist Fund in Russia expressed their concerns regarding the tight security of Sochi City in the upcoming Winter Olympics. According to Oleg Nechiporkenko, chief analyst of the said agency, the city’s capacity to host the 2013 Winter Olympic Games is impossible due to the car bombing incidents that continues to occur in some Krasnodar communities. Envoy to North Caucasus Alexander Khloponin stated the event’s impact in the Sochi’s tourism industry.

Careers in Healthcare Administration

The thought of a career in healthcare may conjure up images of doctors, nurses, and other direct healthcare providers rushing in their scrubs from one emergency situation to another.While there is little doubt that these direct patient care providers are the key to healthcare delivery, many others are working behind the scenes to ensure the entire process is smooth and seamless throughout the system.Among these healthcare professionals are health services managers, also known as healthcare executives or administrators.Healthcare Administration: The ProfessionAccording to the U.S. Department of Labor, the primary job of a healthcare administrator is to plan, direct, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of health services in a healthcare facility. A healthcare administrator may manage:An entire healthcare facility
A specific clinical department
The medical practice of a group of physicians
Typically, a healthcare administration degree is required for the job. Depending on the level and type of degree they have, health services managers can find career opportunities in any of the following positions.
Hospital administration: The job of a hospital administrator is to make sure the hospital they manage runs smoothly and healthcare is efficiently delivered to those who need it. They coordinate day-to-day administrative activities such as creating work schedules, handling finances, maintaining records, managing inventory, etc. to ensure the business of healthcare continues uninterrupted.
Nursing home administration: Nursing homes are residential facilities for people who require constant nursing care. The challenges of managing a nursing home are quite different from those of managing a hospital. Part of a nursing home administrator’s duties is also to take care of the resident patients in addition to managing staff, finances, admissions, and the property itself.
Clinical administration: The responsibilities of a clinical administrator depend on the specific medical specialty department he or she manages. They are responsible for formulating and implementing policies for their clinical department, monitoring the quality of care provided to patients in that department, creating budgets, and preparing reports.
Health information management: Health information managers have the important task of maintaining and safeguarding patient information from unauthorized access. They work with the latest technologies in information management and security to handle hospital databases. It is, therefore, vital for health services managers in this field to keep themselves updated on evolving technologies.Healthcare Administration: TrainingIndividuals interested in this profession are typically required to have a Bachelor’s in Healthcare Administration degree for entry-level assistant roles. Bachelor’s degree programs in health information management are also available for individuals interested in managing this aspect of healthcare.Some employers, however, may insist on a graduate healthcare administration degree for the role of health services manager. A Master’s in Healthcare Administration degree may also be required for advancement from assistant roles to positions with more responsibility and a higher salary.For healthcare administrators seeking advancement without having to take a sabbatical from work, an online Master’s in Health Care Administration program may be an ideal fit. An online healthcare administration degree can provide them the flexibility to continue their education and while still working full time.Healthcare Administration: CompensationAccording to the U.S. Department of Labor, the median annual income of health services managers in May 2010 was $84,270, depending on position, location and education.* Find out about more healthcare administration degrees at schools near you right now!Sources:*

How Mechanical and Electric Fuel Pumps Work

The fuel pump is one of the essential parts of a vehicle’s fuel delivery system. Its main purpose is to draw fuel from the fuel tank and supply it to the engine. There are two types of fuel pumps – mechanical and electric.Mechanical fuel pumps were widely used in older model vehicles while electric ones are common in all modern vehicles. Let’s see how they differ in the way they work.Mechanical fuel pumpThey are used in vehicles with carburetors. They draw fuel from the fuel tank and transfer it to the carburetor. Since there was not much pressure involved in supplying fuel in the carburetor, a diaphragm that could expand and produce vacuum was the central component in the pump.How it works• It, typically, has three components – camshaft, lever arm and diaphragm• When the camshaft rotates, the eccentric lobe on the camshaft pushes the lever arm upwards• This pulls the other end of the lever arm and the diaphragm attached to it moves down, expanding the space in the pump• When the space expands, vacuum is created inside the pump and fuel is sucked up into the inlet line from the tank, while the outlet is still closed• The expanded diaphragm is then pushed back to its normal position by a spring attached to it. This closes the inlet valve and opens up the outlet valve. Thus, the fuel is pushed towards the carburetor• The carburetor, further, blends the fuel with air and transfers it to the engineElectric fuel pumpThey are used in cars with electronic fuel injection system. Most modern vehicles contain an electric fuel pumps. They operate more efficiently and deliver higher pressure (40-60psi). The pump is located inside the tank. This helps in maintaining appropriate temperature of the pump.How it works• Its working is very similar to that of a mechanical• Like the mechanical fuel pump, the electric ones also has the check valve and diaphragm pull system, but the pull on the diaphragm is provided by an electric switch also called the ‘solenoid’• The diaphragm is not directly connected to the solenoid, but only to an iron rod. The solenoid attracts this iron rod using electromotive force pulling the diaphragm down, drawing fuel into the chamber• When this happens, the solenoid pulls apart the contacts through which electricity passes. This cancels off the power supply and the spring pulls the diaphragm back to its normal position pumping the fuel into the outlet valve• The outlet valve opens enabling this outflow• When this happens, the electrical connectivity is restored and the solenoid starts pulling the iron rod againDespite the widespread use of electric fuel pumps, some users still prefer mechanical ones due to their ease of installation, reliability and the chance to prevent the risk of electrical issues. However, electric ones are far superior to their mechanical counterparts as they are safer, more convenient, durable, and resistant to contamination and provide optimal fuel efficiency.